Monday, 28 November 2011

Undang-undang Bola Sepak

Peraturan Permainan terkini terdiri daripada 17 undang-undangnya yang tersendiri:

Sejarah dan pembangunan

Peraturan bola sepak telah dibuat oleh Ebenezer Cobb Morley sebelum ianya dikemaskinikan di satu mesyuarat the Football Association (FA) pada 8 Disember 1863. Pasa masa ini, Peraturan perlawanan akan dinilai oleh International Football Association Board. The board was established on 6 December 1882 when representatives from the Scottish Football Association (SFA), the Football Association of Wales (FAW) and the Irish Football Association (IFA) (now the governing body in Northern Ireland and not to be confused with the Football Association of Ireland (FAI) the governing body in the Republic of Ireland) were invited to attend a meeting in Manchester by the FA; previously games between teams from different countries had to agree to which countries' rules were used before playing. When the international football body FIFA was founded in Paris in 1904 it immediately declared that it would adhere to the rules laid down by the IFAB. The growing popularity of the international game led to the admittance of FIFA representatives to the IFAB in 1913. Today the board is made up of four representatives from FIFA and one representative from each of the British associations.
The original Laws of the Game were established by the FA in December of 1863 and are shown below:
1. The maximum length of the ground shall be 200 yds. and the maximum breadth shall be 100 yards. The length and breadth shall be marked off with flags. The goals shall be defined by two upright posts 8 yds. apart, without any tape or bar across them.
2. The winner of the toss shall have choice of goals. The game shall be commenced by a place-kick from the centre of the ground by the side losing the toss. The other side shall not approach within 10 yds. of the ball until it is kicked off.
3. After a goal is won, the losing side shall kick off, and the goals shall be changed.
4. A goal shall be won when the ball passes between the goal-posts or over the space between the goal-posts (at whatever height), not being thrown, knocked on, or carried.
5. When the ball is in touch, the first player who touches it shall throw it from the point on the boundary line where it left the ground in a direction at right angles with the boundary line, and it shall not be in play until it has touched the ground.
6. When a player has kicked the ball any one of the same side who is nearer to the opponent's goal line is out of play and may not touch the ball himself, nor in any way whatever prevent any other player from doing so until the ball has been played, but no player is out of play when the ball is kicked from behind the goal line.
7. In case the ball goes behind the goal line, if a player on the side to whom the goal belongs first touches the ball, one of his side shall be entitled to a free kick from the goal line at the point opposite the place where the ball shall be touched. If a player of the opposite side first touches the ball, one of his side shall be entitled to a free kick (but at the goal only) from a point 15 yds. from the goal line opposite the place where the ball is touched; the opposing side shall stand behind their goal line until he has had his kick.
8. If a player makes a fair catch, he shall be entitled to a free kick, provided he claims it by making a mark with his heel at once; and in order to take such a kick he may go back as far as he pleases, and no player on the opposite side shall advance beyond his mark until he has kicked.
9. No player shall carry the ball.
10. Neither tripping nor hacking shall be allowed and no player shall use his hands to hold or push an adversary.
11. A player shall not throw the ball or pass it to another.
12. No player shall be allowed to take the ball from the ground with his hands while it is in play under any pretence whatever.
13. A player shall be allowed to throw the ball or pass it to another if he made a fair catch or catches the ball on the first bounce.
14. No player shall be allowed to wear projecting nails, iron plates, or gutta-percha1 on the soles or heels of his boots.
1 gutta-percha is an inelastic natural latex, produced from the resin of the Isonandra Gutta tree of Malaya. It was used for many purposes (e.g. the core of golf balls; the insulation of telegraph cables) before the discovery of superior synthetic materials.

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